The Standard Model

Recently, my dad taught me ‘The Standard Model’ of physics. It is made up of quarks, leptons and bosons. Three quarks make up a proton or a neutron. It depends what the combination of quarks are there to make different hadrons (proton/neutron), e.g. 2 up quarks and 1 down quark make a proton, 1 up quark and 2 down quarks make a neutron. I know that because an up quark has a +2/3 charge and a down quark has a -1/3 charge. The Higgs Boson is an undiscovered particle that will explain mass. I drew a diagram to explain better:

Standard model higgs

The Standard Model

I also drew another diagram showing what makes matter, it explains how crucial quarks are to make everything. It also shows what everything is made of and the layout of atoms, molecules, nuclei and quarks. Oh and what quarks are made of is still a mystery (some people think it could be strings, but that sounds silly to me, haha silly strings 😉 😎 ).  Here is the diagram:

Done by J33v@n

Diagram of matter to quarks


Bose-Einstein Condensate, The Sequel

One day when I was thinking, I had a great thought:  What happens when you put Bose-Einstein condensate into room temperature or into a very hot place very quickly? So usually it is made by freezing liquid helium to ultimately low temperatures (like a fraction above absolute zero (0 Kelvin or -273 degrees Celsius)). Normally if you freeze something and then heat it, it goes back to its original form, e.g. steam –> water –> ice –> water –> steam. But Bose-Einstein condensate would probably change permanently when the helium atoms turn into waves.

Mum said that it is the same as with eggs, once you boil an egg then even when it gets to room temperature it stays a solid. But eggs are not from a single similar molecule (water is just H2O and Bose Einstein condensate would have been helium). Eggs are surprisingly complex. And so is Bose-Einstein condensate but in a different way. I couldn’t find anything on the internet about this idea; surely somebody has done this experiment already.

Michio Kaku On Bose Einstein Condensate

Michio Kaku made a video about Bose Einstein Condensate and a bit about Quantum computers and Teleportation.


I like Astronomy especially hypernovas, black holes and gamma ray bursts.


Hypernovas are giant stars that have exploded. Here is a picture of one:


Black holes

Black holes are created when very big stars explode.  So the core of a hypernova could become a black hole.  Black holes have the most gravity anywhere in the Universe.  Even light cannot come out from them. Einstein wrongly estimated that black holes wouldn’t exist.

Gamma ray bursts

Gamma ray bursts are the most powerful energetic explosions in the universe.  They only last for a few seconds at a time and they fire out gamma rays in 2 directions.  I heard about them on a documentary series called “Science of the Impossible” in an episode called “How to blow up a planet”.  The maker of the programme is Michio Kaku and he is a physicist who is a sci-fi fan.

Bose Einstein Condensate

Bose Einstein Condensate is a state of matter like solid, liquid and gas but its atoms don’t act like dots they act like waves. Bose Einstein Condensate is made by using a gas (Helium works best because it is light) and freezing it to nearly 0 Kelvin (-273 degrees Celsius.) If you put it in a jar it will climb out of it! My dad taught me this when I was 4.  I told my teacher and she was so impressed she called in the head teacher.  Neither of them had heard of this amazing state of matter so they read about it on the Internet.  Why don’t you do the same, starting at Wikipedia. If you didn’t understand then watch this video.